Wednesday, 26 February 2014

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

photo credits: Educational Psychology Interactive
The Web gives to both teachers and students an incredible source of learning and teaching tools. Time and place for learning a specific topic don't exist anymore.  But does this mean that all students are engaged in classroom activities and in taking advantage of cyberculture? Obviously it doesn't. In almost every educational context, the motivation factor, for learning and for school in general, is crucial and must be regarded by teachers as a key element to explore.
Regarding motivation as a set of biological and psychological mechanisms which allow triggering an action, its orientation and finally the intensity and persistence (Lieury & Fenouillet, 1997:9), it becomes impossible not to consider motivation as a crucial factor in the teaching and learning process, because the more motivated the student is, the more persistent and productive his activity will be. 
Lieury e Fenouillet mention two types of motivation: intrinsic (in which the activity is appealling in itself) and extrinsic (which depends on a wide range of outside rewards, such as, grades or prizes). From here we can conclude that the current use of the term motivation refers to the intrinsic type. Teachers always prefer this one because it creates better results. That is why it's so important to identify and promote factors as challenge, control, responsibility, curiosity, fantasy, cooperation and acknowledgement.  (Raya, Lamb & Vieira, 2007:62) These authors also highlight that intrinsic motivation is in inverse proportion of constraint, for example, surveillance or teacher control. It has been proved that students' discouragement is born out of a learning process.
Puzzle of Motivation (Lieury & Fenouillet)
On the other hand, the acknowledgement of competences, in other words, a higher value pedagogy, must be understood as a crucial factor in motivating students. We also need to pay attention to students who belong to ethnic minorities, lower socioeconomic groups and consequently more exposed to being considered less competent; the teacher's attitude towards these students can set the difference, as higher expectations may allow him to question social stereotypes. (Fontaine, 2005:44)
For all these reasons, it is very important to promote tasks that may increase intrinsic motivation (less exposed to constraint), such as, portfolios, group presentations, personal data files, where the teacher's role is much more of giving information, rather than controlling or evaluating, as students are intrinsically motivated and perform all tasks with pleasure. To sum up, motivation can be seen as the puzzle on the left, in which all the mentioned components find a match.

Monday, 10 February 2014

Staying healthy during the school year

image credits: chloraseptic
I have to admit that I have suffered far too many times with sickness in my years as a teacher.  It seemed that whenever a student crossed my path I would inevitably catch whatever the little darling was carrying. What I would like to offer is some advice to teachers who are facing the onslaught of the worst cold and flu season on record, and perhaps some of these habits can be helpful year-round to keep healthy and in the classroom.  Obviously, seek the suggestions of a medical professional before altering your lifestyle, especially if you have risk factors for chronic diseases.

Get enough sleep
I will admit I more often than not will not and cannot follow this advice, however the benefits of sleep are numerous.  While you sleep your body purges itself of toxins and does necessary repair work.  If you do not get enough sleep, chances are you are short-changing your body on its repair time.  We cannot expect a plumber, for example, to install a sink in 15 minutes and then complain when we lack the fixture.  Your body is the same way.  Get at least 7 hours of sleep each night.  A nap after school can also help a little, too.

Disinfect your hands
My students laugh when I put a new bottle of hand sanitizer next to the box of tissues, but at least they use it.  Teach your students that, when they cough or sneeze into their hands or after they blow their nose, they should use hand sanitizer in order to kill off bacterial germs.  You can get bottles of it in the dollar store and it will do the trick, but the visual reminder will help them remember to use it.  Also, disinfect your hands after handling student paperwork.  Think about it:  James suddenly sneezes while he is getting his materials out to hand in to you.  The droplets hit his paper and he innocently hands it in to you.  You now have his germs on your hands.  Yuck!  I keep a key chain bottle on my work keys to remind myself to use it.  After you use hand sanitizer several times it is a wise idea to wash your hands like normal and start fresh.  Furthermore, keep your hands away from your eyes, nose, and mouth.  If you make yourself aware of how often we touch our faces, it would surprise you.  Those are common locations to catch diseases because they are warm, moist areas: bacteria and viruses love those places!  Do not give them the chance.

Sanitize your desks
While the maintenance staff in our school is fantastic at wiping our desks with cleaner, they could always use the extra help.  Use disinfectant sprays and wipes to assure yourself that you are killing off some of the germs your students are encountering.  Think about the other places student touch:  desks, tables, doorknobs, bookshelves, the community pen cup… and just give them a quick spray or wipe.  I usually try to do this before I leave for the day so the disinfectant chemicals have time to work undisturbed.

Eat right
Aside from helping us with the added calories we can build up, eating correctly provides your body with the necessary nutrients to restore and repair itself.  Give it the fuel it deserves.

Take a multivitamin
Most adults try to take a multivitamin to supplement the nutrients they miss in a normal day.  It would be good practice for you to start this if you have not already done so.  I also add in additional Vitamin A, C, D, and E, but that is a personal choice.  Vitamin C and zinc, I have found, tend to be effective in giving your immune system a boost and help you fight off a cold more easily.

Stay home if you are sick
Yes, I know, we have all gone to work feeling under the weather because we have obligations that we cannot miss, we do not want to make substitute plans, we can survive it and then rest when we get home. I have said them all and none of them have made me a more effective teacher.  In fact, if I am too sick to think straight, I am too sick to teach effectively.  Therefore, if you have a fever, if you feel dead on your feet, just take the day and rest.  You more than likely need it.  Listen to your body.  If you go in sick you expose your students, colleagues, and yourself to other opportunistic infections or to reinfection if you have not disinfected your area.  The school will still be standing when you return, and your students will have missed you but will be much better off having a teacher at the top of his/her game.

While all of us will probably end up getting sick during the average school year, taking care of yourself is something you should make a priority.  Our students count on us, and they deserve us at the top of our game.  You are worth the extra effort and care, and since we are a self-sacrificing group of individuals that can ultimately be the hardest lesson we learn.